In Taranto, steel giant ArcelorMittal is attempting to clean up Italy's most polluting plant. But is it a case of too little, too late?
Beyond the factory lies the sea and sandy beaches, though only hardy souls dare to swim or eat the mussels farmed here.
The steel site in southern Italy's Puglia region, formerly owned by Ilva, is at the heart of a huge legal battle during which experts cited by prosecutors say that of the 11,550 people who died in the area over seven years, 7,500 were killed by cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancers linked to toxic emissions.
AcelorMittal began leasing the plant -- with an obligation to buy it – in November, and is investing 2.4 billion euros to revive it, including 1.2 billion euros to curb pollution by 2024.
The group was given a period of legal immunity to bring the plant up to environmental standards.
But the Italian parliament revoked that in June and the company is set to lose its immunity on September 6.
Group president Aditya Mittal told investors this month the government "recognises there is a serious issue here" and is "working to resolve" it.
Without immunity, ArcelorMittal Italia has said it might have to throw in the towel, despite having already begun implementing its clean-up plan, which includes enclosing conveyor belts and installing new quenching towers.
Red and black dust from parks of iron-ore and coal have long covered balconies and playgrounds in the nearby Tamburi and Paulo VI neighbourhoods, and locals shut themselves in and schools close when the wind blows their way.
Huge stockpiles, some 20 metres (yards) high, cover an area the size of 56 football pitches, the company says.
Work on mammoth white coverings to enclose them, which are to be 480 metres long, 250 metres wide and 80 metres high, is the most obvious sign of progress at the European Union's largest steelworks.
The twin structures, each made of 20,000 tons of steel, will be "the biggest such structures in the world", according to Henri-Pierre Orsini, who is responsible for implementing the plan.
"The object is to ensure zero dust emissions," he told AFP.
The upgrades are aimed at reducing dust, metals and dioxins -- through new fabric filtration technologies and dedusting systems -- and stopping the run-off of polluted water.
The company runs tours for workers and their families to change how they view the plant and distance itself from its dark past and the graves in a cemetery just across the road.
As Taranto suffers from record unemployment some feel everything should be done to save the steel works, which employs 12,000 people.
But ArcelorMittal has struggled to win hearts.
In June it temporarily laid-off 1,400 workers owing to sluggish market conditions, and prosecutors launched an investigation in July after a worker was killed when a crane was blown into the sea.
The deadly accident sparked strikes.
And while the company pledges to slash dioxin and dust emissions to below EU limits, they cannot be eliminated entirely.
"The plant's a huge economic resource. But are we supposed to all die just to save some jobs?" asked pensioner Giuliana Tomaselli, 64, as she gazed from her beach chair at the towering red-and-white striped chimneys.
Source: The Local Italy